Wolf - Anubis (Kunsthist. Museum Wien, photo: R.H.)
The god Wepwawet / Upuaut (c.664–332 BC, Brooklyn Museum; photo: C.E. Wilbour; https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=33447709).
Egyptian "wolf god" Upuaut / Wepwawet (Louvre) // Der ägyptische Wolfsgott Wepwawet // Le dieu-loup Wepwawet
Wepwawet & Lykopolis, the Wolf City! Osiris in the guise of a Wolf?
The Greeks who came to Egypt could easily accept the divine nature of wolves. In the city of Asyut, the god Wepwawet was venerated in form of a wolf. Wepwawet is the «Opener of the Ways», a guide, for example leading the army into battle, opening the way to the pharao's victory, also as "opener" of the sky, and later he was also believed to guide the deceased into the netherworld. He is often depicted as a wolf standing at the prow of a solar-boat (see images) (more info). The Greeks therefore called the city of Asyut Λύκων πόλις, Lykopolis, the «Wolf City» (Strabo 17.1.40; Aelian. Hist. An. 10.28). Diodorus Siculus (1.88.6-7) provides various accounts for the wolf worship there. In one story, Osiris, the god of afterlife and re-birth, had transformed himself into a wolf and subsequently ordered its worship: «For they say that in early times when Isis, aided by her son Horus, was about to commence her struggle with Typhon, Osiris came from Hades to help his son and his wife, having taken on the guise of a wolf; and so, upon the death of Typhon, his conquerors commanded men to honour the animal upon whose appearance victory followed.» The second story is similar to the above-mentioned examples from Greece where wolves were protecting people against calamity: «But some say that once, when the Ethiopians had marched against Egypt, a great number of bands of wolves (lykoi) gathered together and drove the invaders out of the country, pursuing them beyond the city named Elephantine; and therefore that nome was given the name Lycopolite and these animals were granted the honour in question.» (Translation: Loeb Classical Library edition, 1933)
Wepwawet Standard // Standarde mit dem Wolfsgott Wepwawet - 722-732 BC (Museo Torino, photo: R.H.)
Wepwawet - top-right corner. This depiction shows the pharao Den, found in his tomb in Abydos, 3,000 BC -today British Museum (photo: Wikipedia, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IvoryLabelOfDen-BritishMuseum-August19-08.jpg)
Osiris and Wepwawet. Stele of Meri-ptah. ca. 1410 - 1372 BC. Abydos? (Kunsthist. Museum, Wien, photo: R.H. 2017)
Wepwawet/Anubis. Cult Chamber of / Kultkammer von: Ka-ni-nisut, 2500 BC (Kunsthist. Museum Wien, photo: R.H.)
Egyptian wolf or jackal? Wooden figure, c. 730-330 BC (Karlsruhe Bad. Landesmuseum), photo: R.H.
Wolf ("Schakal"), Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien (photo: RH 2017)
The Goddess Isis on a Wolf / Isis reitet auf einem Wolf / Isis et le loup
Greco-Roman representation of the goddess Isis on the back of a wolf, who looks to Isis (with two erotes(?) underneath); circular steatite votive patera (W: 12.2cm; British Museum no. EA38511; cf. E.A. Arslan, Iside: il mito, il mistero, la magia, 1997: 282)
The Egyptian goddess Isis and a wolf (or dog) on this Alexandrian coin? Isis and the "dog star" Sothis/Sirius.
Solar Boat, pulled by Wolves // von Wölfen gezogenes Sonnenschiff
Solar boat pulled by four WOLVES (not jackals -see above). Funerary papryus of Djehutymes, Cyberus papyrus, 21st dynast (c. 1000BC), Thebes (Museo Eg. Torino, photo: R.H.)
Kunsthist. Museum, Wien - photo: R.H.
Two Anubis. Egyptian sarcophagus foot board, 26th - 30th dynasty
Surprisingly similar to the above-mentioned Anubis & Apollo Lykaios Wolf statues from Egypt: a Japenese Wolf God
"Wolf Gods" in Egypt // Wolfsgötter in Ägypten // Les dieux-loups d'Egypte: Anubis & Wepwawet
Mask of god Anubis, approx. 1,800-1,200 BC // Wolfmaske des Gottes Anubis - vermutlich vom Priester bei Zeremonien getragen. Ca. 1800-1200 v. Chr.
We should not forget egypt. The god Anubis was represented as a wolf (or human with wolf head). What used to be identified as a jackal is nowadays interpreted as a wolf (see the rather slender Ethopian wolf that is threatened by extinction today). Here, a recumbent statue of Anubis as black-coated wolf from the Tomb of Tutankhamun (photo: Jon Bodsworth, egyptarchive.co.uk)
Anubis: Wolf, not Jackal! // Anubis - ein Wolf, kein Schakal
The most famous Egyptian wolf deity is of course Anubis. The traditional idea of a jackal deity is today outdated since DNA has shown that the so-called African jackal is actually a subspecies of the grey wolf (Rueness et al. 2011). Already the 5th-century BC Greek historian Herodotos (2.67) wrote that Egyptian wolves «are little bigger than foxes» and interestingly he reports that they were «buried wherever they are found lying» which reflects an enormous respect towards these animals. Theoretically Anubis and Wepwawet statues could equally have been modelled on the rather small and slim Ethiopian wolf. It is therefore no surprise that the Greek-speaking population in Egypt (after Alexander the Great's conquest) also identified Anubis with the wolf deity they already knew, Apollo Lykaios (see Greek Wolf-Myths). A black granite statue from Luxor, dating to approximately 200 BC, reads: Ἀπόλλωνι Λυκαίωι | Θεόμνηστος Νικίου – «To Apollo Lykaios (dedicated by) Theomnestos, son of Nikios» (see image below. In the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, no. CG 9276). An almost identical limestone statue, height 51.6 cm, was found in the north wall of the Amun-Ra sanctuary, probably dating to 330-200 BC, and is rather likely to represent a wolf (Anubis or Wepwawet). And as in other cultures, we can also see the role of wolves as divine messengers and guides in Egypt if we believe Herodotos’ account: «This priest with his eyes bandaged is guided, they say, by two wolves (λύκων) to Demeter's [i.e. Isis’] temple, a distance of three miles from the city, and led back again from the temple by the wolves to the same place» (Herodotos 2.122).
Recent DNA analysis has shown that the Egyptian jackal is actually a subspecies of the grey wolf! See Rueness, E. K., Asmyhr, M. G., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Macdonald, D.W., Bekele A., et al. (2011), «The cryptic African wolf: canis aureus lupaster is not a golden jackal and is not endemic to Egypt», PLoS ONE 6(1): e16385. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016385 [accessed 4 July 2018].
A rare statue dedicated to Apollo Lykaios as "wolf god" from c.200 BC, discovered in Ptolemaic Egypt. The Greek inscription reads:
Ἀπόλλωνι Λυκαίωι | Θεόμνηστος Νικίου. "To Apollo Lykaios (dedicated by) Theomnestos, son of Nikios."
Black granite figure discovered in Luxor in the 1870s (Egyptian Museum, Cairo: CG 9276).
Also from Egypt, this limestone figure, h.: 51.6cm, c.330-200 BC, of "seated dog" (British Museum), from N wall of Amun-Ra sanctuary, acquired by Petrie. The "dog" is more likely to be a wolf, and it is possible that the Greek 'colonisers' were equating the Egyptian god Anubis with Apollo Lykaios.
Wolf-headed Anubis, Kunsthist. Museum Wien (photo: RH)
Da der ägyptische Anubis und der griech.-röm. Hermes/Merkur ähnliche Funktionen hatten, v. a. im Bezug auf die Seelen der Toten, entstand ein in röm. Zeit populärer Hybrid-Gott: Hermanubis, als Mensch mit dem Kopf eines Wolfes.
In the Roman period, we find this hybrid of a wolf-headed Egyptian Anubis and Greek Hermes: the god "Hermanubis" - This statue can be found in the Vatican Museums, Rome!
And here a "Hermanubis" in military dress... A small bronze figurine! (Sorry, I still need to check provenance and museum for this object).
Another "Hermanubis" (sorry, I haven't found the details for this mosaic yet)
Roman Egypt // Röm. Ägypten // Égypte romaine
Anubis and wolf representation. Funerary stele from Greco-Roman Egypt. Museo Torino, photo: R.H.
Röm. Grabstele mit, rechts, Anubis with dem Kopf eines Wolfes. --- Roman-period funerary stele, depicting a person in Greek dress. To the right: wolf-headed god Anubis. 1st-2nd century AD (photo: R.H. - at MUCEM Marseille 2015; from Musee Geneve)
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